Central govt. is going to launch the National Tribal Migration Support Portal to create a central database of migrants. Ministry of Tribal Affairs will operate this new portal and app for migrants. This portal for migrants will capture and upload migration data right down to the village level. This exercise has gathered stream after the Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic put the spotlight on an invisible population.
- National Tribal Migration Support Portal – Central Database of Migrants
- National Tribal Migration Support Portal
National Tribal Migration Support Portal
National Tribal Migration Support Portal will enable central govt. to keep a database of migrants. The data collection exercise is expected to begin soon with Goa being the first to put up its migration cell in January 2021. Another state, Odisha, would begin its data collection process in February 2021.
Features of Migration Data Portal in India
As there is no central database for migrants, a standardized questionnaire has been developed. This questionnaire has been integrated with the National Tribal Migration Support Portal and mobile application by the Ministry of Tribal Affairs. Tribal Research Institute (TRI), Odisha, along with civil society organizations, is developing standard operating procedures to gather data across India.
Govt. Order on Data Collection of Migrants
Ministry of Tribal Affairs has issued a government order to all TRIs in 26 states to take up data collection. Besides Goa, Odisha, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Telangana, and Sikkim have agreed to start work on data collection. MoTA will analyze the data to address the concerns of tribal migrants through policy and schemes, an official explained. A questionnaire with data collection guidelines will be provided to enumerators in any state that decides to take up the process.
Indicators for Nationwide Tribal Migration Data
The indicators for collecting Nationwide Tribal Migration Data are as follows:-
- Basic socio-economic profile of migrating tribals
- Skill-mapping of tribals who are migrating
- Migration patterns of migrants
- The work profile of each of the migrant tribal
- Daily income to access to basic services like health, education, and food during migration.
Goa receives an estimated 4 lakh migrants annually from states like Odisha, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Bihar, UP, and Karnataka.
Uploading of Data at National Tribal Migration Support Portal
In a multi-department exercise, Goa will provide training to grassroots workers linked to public outreach schemes like NREGA and National Urban Livelihood Mission to collect data. The data will be uploaded on a portal that will be centrally available to ministries and states for analysis and policy-planning.
Even the data of tribal migrants will be electronically available and visible via dashboards at various levels. These levels include a village, block, district, state, and national levels. However, details of migrants surveyed will be kept secure in keeping with data privacy norms.
Tribal Livelihood Migration Study
Commissioned by MoTA, the findings, and recommendations of the Tribal Livelihood Migration study conducted by civil society organization Disha Foundation between 2017- 2019 in 12 states are also being studied to address the concerns of migrants. The study covered source states (Jharkhand, Odisha, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Chhattisgarh) and destination states (Punjab, Gujarat, Delhi, Kerala, Goa, Maharashtra, Telangana).
The study indicates that mostly migration of tribal population is distress-driven and comparatively higher daily wage rate at destination states was a major factor. For instance, an unskilled laborer in Kerala gets wages two and a half times higher than the prevailing wages in Kota and Varanasi. Driven by vulnerabilities, the migrants are joining the informal labor force as contract laborers in the construction industry and domestic workers in major cities where they face unsafe conditions and wage-related harassment among other concerns.